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 تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول

اذهب الى الأسفل 
كاتب الموضوعرسالة
Alking
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ذكر عدد المساهمات : 118
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تاريخ التسجيل : 13/12/2008
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المزاج المزاج : Noooo Comment
بلدك : مصريه
الابراج : الميزان


مُساهمةموضوع: تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول   الجمعة يناير 08, 2010 7:56 pm

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته
النهارده ان شاء الله كتبتلكم تلخيص مادة النقد للدكتور احمد عبد السلام اللى انا عملتها على امل انها تفيدنا جميعا باذن الله
طبعا انا مش اشطر واحد فيكم ولا حاجة بس انا عملتها فقلت نستفيد بيها كلنا وربنا ييسر الحال للجميع باذن ال
له

Impersonality and the Death of the Author


[color=blue]Modern criticism denies the significance of the poet's personality and focuses on the work of art itself. Impersonality means to avoid subjectivity and perconceptions. One should discover the idea but not to begin with it. This new ideas of modern criticism are clearly shown in essays written by T.S Eliot, Roland Barthes, Ezra Pound and Cleanth Brooks.

Eliot's emphasis upon tradition and his denial of the literary significance of the poet's personality represented a determination to rehabilitate objectivity and intellect. Eliot argues that the best, even the most, " individual" parts of a poet's work may be those most alive with the influence of his poetic ancestors.

No poet, no artist is significant in isolation. The whole of past literature will be " in the bones" of the poet with the true historic sense which recognizes presence, as well as the " pastness" of the past.

Eliot's sense of the interdependence of present and past is something which he believes the poet must cultivate. The poet must be always surrendering what he is at the moment to something more valuable:
The progress of an artist is a continual self-sacrifice, a continual extinction of personality.

Eliot's emphasis on the depersonalization effected in creative work shifts the critical focus from the poet to the poetry. It also shifts the critical focus from the individual poem in isolation to the body of poetry as a whole and the living body of all poetry.
Eliot is particularly determined to demolish the idea that the poet has " personality " to express. Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion but an escape from emotion; it is not the expression of personality but an escape from personality.

In his essay " The Death of the Author ", Ronald Barthes declares that " writing is the destruction of every voice, of every point of origin". The idea of self-expression is meaningless when the "self" in question is itself only " a ready-formed dictionary".

Barthes replaces the author by a "scriptor" who is not a bundle of passions and impressions but the owner immense dictionary.
The unity of a text " lies not in its origin in its destination".


In his essay " A Retrospect ", Ezra Pound sought a new precision and expicitness in rendering nature and emotion.
To him, " poetry is a sort of inspired mathematics which gives us equations not for abstract figures, spheres and the like but equations for the human emotions". On this basis, Pound collaborated with Richard Arligton and Hilda Doolittle in what was called the Imagist Movement. He cited its basic principles thus:
1) Direct treatment of the thing whether subjective or objective.
2) To use absolutely no word that doesn't contribute to the
presentation.
3) As regard rhythm to compose in the the sequence of the
musical phrase not in sequence of a metronome.

Pound's campaign was directed against prolixity, verbosity and flaccidity. He insisted that the young poet had to practice his craft with the same dicipline as the young musician.

Pound's definition of an image is that it " presents an intellectual and motional complex in an instant of time".

In " The Formalist Critic ", an essay written by Cleanth Brooks, he states that " literary criticism is a description and revelation of its objects". It concerns iteslf with the work itself.[/]



الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Alking
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ذكر عدد المساهمات : 118
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تاريخ التسجيل : 13/12/2008
العمر : 30
العمل/الترفيه العمل/الترفيه : جوال - طباخ عشرة على عشرة
المزاج المزاج : Noooo Comment
بلدك : مصريه
الابراج : الميزان


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول   الجمعة يناير 08, 2010 8:02 pm

On Eliot's " The Waste Land"

[color=blue]Eliot is beyond doubt one of the outstanding poets of this century, a man with a profound and sensitive mind who used symbol and imagery in a manner that was entirely his own to project thoughts and feelings. As a poet, he extended the range of literary technique. The waste land is a long-highly complex poem which brings together a group of characters as different in kind and time as a modern typist and a blind priest of ancient Greece who can see the future.

The Waste Land is an epoch-mocking poem of some 400 lines.
The main theme of this poem is the salvation of the waste land, not as a certainty but a possibility: of emotional, spiritual and intellectual vitality to be regained. It portrays the decay of modern European civilization. It deals with the spiritual sterility and cultural barrenness.

The poem is based upon fertility cults of the ancients Egyptians as well as vegetation ceremonies from Sir James Frazer's " from Ritual to Romance". The parched land is a symbol of the shriveled soul of man. The poem ends with the mood that something may be saved from desolation.

T.S Eliot represents a revolution in modern English poetry. The Waste Land is a poem that is not coherent in a traditional sense.
It may seem that it is structureless.It is composed of movements. Each movement is a unit in itself, but all the movements are related to each other to add to the unity of the poem.

Moreover, Eliot is innovator in using language in The Waste Land. He uses various languages in the poem that adds to is difficulty. However, beside showing Eliot's education and sophistication, this use of different languages adds to the universality of the poem. It makes it more universal.


Eliot uses different levels of language in his poem. There is everyday colloquial language as well as poetic language. Eliot is the first to use everyday language in this sense. This is quite new in English poetry and it is considered modernism. The Waste Land is rich in imagery.

In addition. Eliot makes use of paradoxes to enrich his ideas and enhance his meaning. In the first section of the poem, there is a paradox in "April is the cruelest month". This paradox helps to create the general atmosphere of the poem. There is a paradox in "Memory and desire, stirring". "Memory" stands for the past while "desire" represents the present and hence a contrast between the past and the present. The Waste Land is written in a free verse form.

Sometimes, Eliot speaks through a character and in some of the situation he speaks to the audience. This makes the poem highly dramatic.
[/]


الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Alking
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ذكر عدد المساهمات : 118
نقاط : 36586
تاريخ التسجيل : 13/12/2008
العمر : 30
العمل/الترفيه العمل/الترفيه : جوال - طباخ عشرة على عشرة
المزاج المزاج : Noooo Comment
بلدك : مصريه
الابراج : الميزان


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول   الجمعة يناير 08, 2010 8:08 pm

On Yeats "Symbolism of Poetry"


[color=blue]
In "The Symbolist Movement", Symons, poet and critic who knew Wilde and Yeats, speaks of "Decadence" as "an interlude, half a mock interlude" diverting the attention of critics "while something more serious was in preparation". That something was symbolism.

In "The Symbolism of Poetry" (1900) Yeats develops ideas found in Symon's "the Symbolist Movement" which Symons dedicates to him. He presses the link between "the scientific movement" and the tendency of literature "to lose itself in externalities of all kinds, in opinion, in declaration, in picturesque writing, in word-painting".

In an attempt to show the importance of symbolism in writing in conveying meaning, he attracts us to the startling melancholy beauty in the lines said be Burns:
The white moon is setting behind the white wave,
And Time is setting with me, O!

These lines are perfectly symbolical. The relation between the whiteness of the moon and of the wave and the setting of Time is too subtle for the intellect. This is called symbolical writing. It is more profound and moving than metaphors.

It is symbolism that makes poetry moving by the way emotion and ideas are embodied, and the consequent evocation have a restorative effect on the human heart.

Yeats refuses the kind of representation which "is limited to external appearances".
[/]

الرجوع الى أعلى الصفحة اذهب الى الأسفل
Alking
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ذكر عدد المساهمات : 118
نقاط : 36586
تاريخ التسجيل : 13/12/2008
العمر : 30
العمل/الترفيه العمل/الترفيه : جوال - طباخ عشرة على عشرة
المزاج المزاج : Noooo Comment
بلدك : مصريه
الابراج : الميزان


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول   الجمعة يناير 08, 2010 8:12 pm

Sociology of Poetry


[color=blue]
In his article "The poetic representation of Lives: Writing Postmodernist Sociology" presented at the 1990 meetings of the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction, Laurel Richardson asserts the validity of poetry as social criticism. He proposes poetry as a method for " seeing through and beyond social science". Poetry is greatly influenced by social conditions. It is, moreover, a mirror for social conditions, as for life and emotions. Poetry is a forerunner of philosophical, political and social thinking.

Poetry in the west, in the past two centuries, has been praised for its beauty, its sincerity, its sweetness, its light, and its power. However, poetry has its social utility and usefullnes. The societies of the west believe in the power of the word.

Teaching has always been recognized as an important function of poetry. Early poets were teachers, diviners, prophets and preservers of traditions. Part os their function is to address their society in their poetry.
In modern times, poetry can be used as a kind of therapy.
Myra Livingston says:
Poetry humanizes because it links the individual by its distilled experience, its rhythms, its words to another in a way which no other form of communication can.

Arleen Hynes ascribes the value of poetry to its ability to change and heal. "A poem's beauty," she admits, "is in its spirit". Poetry is used as a tool to help the person to discover and enhance his spiritual life.

Dobyns suggests that poetry touches our feelings as well as addresses our thoughts.



In his journey to reach a conception of the social role of poetry, Auden writes: "There must be two kinds of art, escape art, for man needs escape as he needs food and deep sleep, and parable art, that art which shall teach man to unlearn hatred and learn love".

The Greek poets- first Homer,then the Hellenistic poets- prepare the way for modern society. They are the creators of public opinion and public judgement and hence are of great value. In these societies, poets are prophets and diviners. The poet fulfills his professional function by addressing society in his poetry.
Sidney's An Apology for Poetry offers the most comprehensive synthesis of the aim and function of poetry.

For Sidney, the value of poetry is not chained to literal ideal; poetry is able to portray ideal characters and to render the image of the good in such a way as to persuade men to follow it. Thus, poetry is able to 'teach' and 'delight'. Poetry is written to yield both instruction and aesthetic pleasure to men who read it.

In the 18th century, there is the period of Romantic poetry from about 1770 to1850 . The major Romantics like William Wordsworth and Samuel Coleridge share an interest in the individual and the imagination as well as having a notion of the function of the poet and the social role of poetry.

Art, for Ruskin, is not an escape from life but a means toward it. Ruskin considers art including poetry an effective means to secure happiness and morality to mankind.

Shelly agrees with Mathew Arnold when the latter says that poetry is a criticism of life.

Some critics emphasize the social role of poetry and poets. They suggest that poets are the moral conscious of society.


* Different from English poetry in setting and stance, Arabic poetry seems to have the same trend and attitude. This can be attributed to the universality of poetry. In their writings, classical Arab critics show the basic importance of poetry in the early Arab tribal society.



[/]


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مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول   الجمعة يناير 08, 2010 9:19 pm

الله عليك يا حبيبى ..ألف ألف شكر على المجهود الجميل ده.يارب يكون فى ميزان حسناتك.ويارب يكرمك ويوفقك ويكرمنا جميعا وننجح كلنا السنة دى.شكرا ليك يااسلام.....
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المزاج المزاج : حمرااااااااااااا
بلدك : مصري
الابراج : الثور


مُساهمةموضوع: رد: تلخيص مادة النقد للفصل الدراسى الاول   الأحد يناير 10, 2010 11:46 am

يا رب يا اسلام تنجح وكمان تجيب جيد جدا اترم دا ، والله يا بنى مجهود جبار وفعلا يا يارب يجازيك خير ويجعله فى ميزان حسناتك وان شاء الله هتجيب احلى كلام مع الدكتور عبد السلام ، بس برده ياسلم يا يريت تعيلى معاك وكلنا ندعى لبعض ( انا عارف دلوقت الادمن بيقول ايه دا يا عم خالد احنا داخلين نحارب الجزائر مكبر الموضوع كدا ليه ) بس الظاهر والله العظيم ان انا علشان متعلق بيكوا فكنت باجى ايام الامتحانات وبدوس علشان اطلع معاكو السنة اللى بعد كدا ،بس طبعا بعد انا ما اطمنت ان خلاص انتو هتتخرجو ان شاء الله وحتى لو الواحد نزل ولا حاجة فخلاص كدا كدا كانت هتكون فراق وغربة ( براغيت ونمووووووووووس) ههههههههههههههههههههه وحشنى جدا يلا بقى فى صوت واحد

احنا متفوقين وحلوين وشاطرين اوى
وكل سنة نفس الموال والضغط العصبى
بس برده بننجح وكمان بنجيب جيد ( معلهش يا ابو طه انت وعمرو انا اسف ، انتو يا سيدى بتاع الجيد جدا الله يسهلوه)
فانشاء الله برده هنشد حيلنا وهننجح

زى كل سنة وهنتخرج بقى ونروح بوالالامبور
علشان نكون نفسنا وهنجيب مراريح(جمع مروحة) وخلاليط وعرايس صينى

يارب يا رب يا رب

ملحوظة: احذر شد الحيل جامد احسن الحبل يتقطع ( خاصة انت يا عامر)



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