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 "An Essay on Criticism" 2

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مُساهمةموضوع: "An Essay on Criticism" 2   الجمعة مارس 27, 2009 8:22 pm

ودا شرح تاني ، يارب يعجبكم........

Paraphrase

But most by numbers judge a poet's song; And smooth or rough, with them is right or wrong: In the bright Muse though thousand charms conspire, Her voice is all these tuneful fools admire, Who haunt Parnassus but to please their ear, Not mend their minds; as some to church repair, Not for the doctrine, but the music there.

But most people judge a poet's poem by Versification (an art of composing verse, which has special form, and emphasizing on tone). They judge a poet to be right or wrong depending on whether the tone is smooth or rough.

Though thousands of charm conspires the bright Muse, her voice is all these tuneful fools, who haunt Parnassus but to please their ears, admire. These fools are just as some people who go to church repair for the music there but not for the doctrine.

These equal syllables alone require, Tho' oft the ear the open vowels tire, While expletives their feeble aid do join, And ten low words oft creep in one dull line, While they ring round the same unvaried chimes, With sure returns of still expected rhymes.

These syllables are required equally long, though the ear often tired with the open vowels. While expletives do join their feeble aid and ten low words are often placed in one dull line. While they ring the same unchanged chimes over and with certain returns which is expected rhymes.

Where'er you find "the cooling western breeze", In the next line, it "whispers through the trees": If "crystal streams with pleasing murmurs creep", The reader's threaten'd (not in vain) with "sleep".

Whenever you find " the cooling western breeze", whispers through the trees" appear in the next line. If there is line saying a crystal stream, "with pleasing murmurs creep" will follow behind. Then readers can predict the following word to be " sleep."

Then, at the last and only couplet fraught With some unmeaning thing they call a thought, A needless Alexandrine ends the song, That, like a wounded snake, drags its slow length along.

Then, at the end a couplet contains with some unmeaning things that those poets call a thought ends the poem with a needless Alexandrine. (A line verse containing six iambic feet) And it is like a wounded snake, dragging its body crawling away.

Leave such to tune their own dull rhymes, and know What's roundly smooth, or languishingly slow; And praise the easy vigor of a line, Where Denham's strength, and Waller's sweetness join.

The poets tune their poem with the dull rhymes and said that was roundly smooth and languishingly slow.

And people praised the easy vigor of a line in the poem, and said that was combined Denham's strength and Waller's sweetness.

True ease in writing comes from art, not chance, As those move easiest who have learn'd to dance. 'Tis not enough no harshness gives offence, The sound must seem an echo to the sense.

True ease in writing comes from art, not chance; it is just like those who have learned to dance can move in the easiest way. It's not enough emphasizing on sound only, the sound must correspond to the sense.

Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows, And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows; But when loud surges lash the sounding shore, The hoarse, rough verse should like the torrent roar.

(Pope gave several examples to show how the meaning in the poem correspond to the sound. They are as following.)

When describing zephyr blows gently, the strain is soft and the smooth stream flows in smoother numbers. But when describing loud surges lash the sounding shore, the hoarse, rough verse should be like the torrent roar.

When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw, The line too labors, and the words move slow; Not so, when swift Camilla scours the plain, Flies o'er the' unbending corn, and skims along the main.

(Two more examples were given here.)

The line and the word move slow to show that Ajax strives to throw a rock of vest weight. Like Camilla swiftly scours the plain, flying over the unbending corn, and skims along the ocean.

Hear how Timotheus' varied lays surprise, And bid alternate passions fall and rise! While, at each change, the son of Libyan Jove Now burns with glory, and then melts with love; Now his fierce eyes with sparkling fury glow, Now sighs steal out, and tears begin to flow:

(One more example given.)

Just hear how the poem Timotheus' varied the lines to be full of surprises to make readers' feeling fall and rise with these changes. We can see those undulation in the son of Libyan Jove.

(Then Pope retells the story of that poem in the following lines.)

"Now burns with glory, and then melts with love; Now his fierce eyes with sparkling fury glow; Now sighs steal out, and tears begin to flow."

Persians and Greeks like turns of nature found, And the world's victor stood subdued by sound! The power of music all our hearts allow, And what Timotheus was, is Dryden now.

Persians and Greeks are apt to use the turns of nature to express their thought and those famous poets now insist to be covecame by rhyme (to focus on rhyme.) But the power of music should allow our hearts to lead out emotion like the poem "Timotheus"did and the way Dryden is doing now.


Vocabulary
Doctrine

---Principles or beliefs, especially religious ones. ---Statement of official government policy. (In American use)

E.g.: In the latest press conference, the official announces new doctrine.

Conspire

---A group of people makes a secret agreement for illegal things. E.g.: Mrs. Jones admitted conspiring to murder her husband. --- Work together to cause a particular result.

E.g.: To carry out the plan, England and The United States conspire together.

Syllable -

--Any of the units into which a word may be divided, usual consisting of a vowel- sound with a consonant.

E.g.: The word "lady" has two syllables.

Expletive

---An expletive is a rude word or expression you use when you are annoyed or excited.

E.g.: He uttered several vigorous expletives when he dropped the iron on his foot.

Feeble -

-- Weak, faint, lacking force

E.g.: She is feeble from sickness.

Vigor

---Vigor is physical or mental energy and enthusiasm.

E.g.: His body lacks the bounce and vigor of a normal two-year-old.

Unvaried

--- If you describe something as unvarying, you mean that it stays the same and never changes.

E.g.: Her unvarying refusal to make public appearances.

Couplet

--- A couplet is two lines of poetry which come next to each other, especially two lines that rhyme with each other and the same length.

E.g.: Alexander Pope, an excellent poet was good at making couplet.

Fraught

---If you say that situation or action is fraught, you mean that it is worrying or stressful.

E.g.: It has been a somewhat fraught day.

--- If a situation or action is fraught with problems or ricks, it is filed with them.

E.g.: The earliest operations employing this technique were fraught with dangers.

Strain

---Part of a tune or piece of music being performed.

E.g.: The choirboys sing the angelic strains.

Zephyr

---Soft gentle breeze

E.g.: Zephyr's blowing makes me comfortable.

Surge

--- Forward or upward movement.

E.g.: Viewing the surge of the sea, I can't help feeling afraid.

Lash -

-- To strike somebody or something with or as with a whip

E.g.: Rain lashed on the roof against the windows.

Sounding

--- Having a specified sound or giving a mental impression of a specified kind.

E.g.: The sounding shore lashed by the sea looks magnificent.

Hoarse

---Sounding rough and harsh

E.g.: He shouted himself hoarse.

Verse

---writing arranged in lines, often with a regular rhyme scheme.

E.g.:Most of the scene is written in verse, but some is in prose.

Torrent

---Violently rushing stream of water,lava,etc.

E.g.:The mountain torrent happened a couple of years ago.

Strive

---Try very hard to obtain or achieve something

E.g.: He strives to improve his performance.
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